Children Born Out of Wedlock Must Act Quickly to Preserve Inheritance Rights
I recently read that 43% of the 91,000 babies born in Tennessee in 2008 were born out of wedlock. Babies with unwed parents are now so common that the social stigma from yesteryear has largely disappeared. Nevertheless, there are still circumstances where the law discriminates against children born out of wedlock.
When someone dies without a Will, the state of Tennessee decides who will inherit the person’s estate. The laws governing this process are known as "Intestate Succession." When the decedent has no surviving spouse or descendants, the property is distributed to the decedent’s parents or descendants of the parents if they are deceased, i.e., brothers, sisters, nieces and nephews. If the parents are deceased and have no then living descendants, then the property is distributed to descendants of the decedent’s grandparents (i.e. aunts, uncles, first cousins, second cousins, third cousins). Children born out of wedlock frequently claim to be a member of the class who inherits from an intestate decedent.
The Cleo Snapp case is the most recent of several Tennessee cases that have treated children born out of wedlock as creditors of the estate. Tennessee law requires creditors to file a claim against the estate within 1 year of the decedent's death if they want to receive a share of the estate. Furthermore, if the executor notifies the creditor that they need to file a claim, they have only 4 months after receiving the notification. If the creditor does not file a timely claim, they forfeit their share of the estate.
The problem presents itself when inheritance rights flow through the potential inheritor's father. There is no requirement for filing a claim when your “blood” relationship to the decedent is through your mother.
When a potential inheritor files a timely claim, he or she must still prove the identity of their father by clear and convincing evidence.
The paternity issue most often arises when there is not a Will, but can also arise when there is a Will which does not clearly specify who inherits the decedent's estate.